Answering Disadvantages:

1. Link Defense: the plan does not result in the disadvantage
2. Link Offense: the plan prevents the disadvantage from happening
3. Not Unique: the disadvantage is likely to happen in the status quo
4. Impact Defense: the impact is untrue, unlikely, or overclaimed
5. Aff Solves Impact: the disad impact is prevented by the plan or inevitable in the absence of the plan

Answering Topicality:

1. We Meet: the plan is included within the negative’s interpretation
2. Counter-Interpretation: propose a different interpretation of the relevant words of the resolution
3. We Meet the Counter-Interpretation: the plan is included within the affirmative counter-interpretation
4. Reasons to Prefer: the affirmative’s interpretation is superior to the negative’s interpretation
5. Reasonability: the negative must show that the affirmative interpretation makes debate impossible in order to warrant a negative ballot on topicality

Answering Counterplans:

1. Solvency Deficit: the counterplan does not solve the affirmative advantages
2. Theory: the counterplan is unfair and makes for worse debates
3. Offense: the counterplan results in negative consequences
4. Permutations: the plan and the counterplan in combination are net beneficial to the counterplan alone

Answering Critiques:

1. Permutations: tthe plan and the alternative in combination are net beneficial to the alternative alone
2. Offense: the alternative results in negative consequences
3. Solvency: the alt does not solve the aff advs AND does not solve the links/impacts of the critique
4. Theory: the alternative is unfair and makes for worse debates
5. Author Indicts: the theory that underlies the critique is flawed, incorrect, or inaccurate
6. Link Answers: the critique does not link to the plan